Pentatonics Module Two

The notes of the pentatonic scale

The notes (scale tones) of the major pentatonic scale are:

  • The tonic, the major second, the major third, the perfect fifth, and the major sixth

     (The fourth and seventh notes of the major scale are missed out.)

The notes (scale tones) of the minor pentatonic scale are:

  • The tonic, the minor third, the perfect fourth, the perfect fifth, and the minor (or flattened) seventh.

     (The second and sixth of the natural minor scale are missed out.)

The shorthand for the pentatonic scale tones used in this workbook is:

Note that in the shorthand, ‘major’ (the second, third and sixth) and ‘perfect’ (the fourth and fifth) are understood, and not written down.

You can use the shorthand to find the pentatonic tones just by counting keys from T = 1, but only for white-key C, G, and F major and A, E, and D minor pentatonic scales. After that you need black keys, and you have to know your scales.

One-octave pentatonic scales in written music

Play these one-octave major and minor pentatonic scales.

First, revise the pentatonic scale tone shorthand:

The music says to play from one tonic (T) up to the next tonic then back down again.

To avoid having to think about fingering, use two hands – the left hand for the bottom three notes and the right hand for the top three. The stems of the left hand notes are shown pointing down, and pointing up for the right hand notes.

Use any fingers that are convenient. The purpose of the drill is to start to recognise the sound of the two pentatonic scales and to ‘see’ them on the keyboard. As soon as you can, watch your hands playing the scale tones on the keyboard, rather than looking at the written page.

Notice that the keyboards no longer line up with the music. You have to think about where T is, which keys to skip, and match up the scale tone shorthand above and below the music with the shorthand on the keyboard.

 C major and relative A minor

MPW_M2_XX

 G major and relative E minor

MPW_M2_XX

 F major and relative D minor

MPW_M2_XX

Now two major/minor pentatonic pairs using one black key. The black keys are indicated by sharps (©) in the music.

 D major and B minor

MPW_M2_XX

 B flat major and G minor

The black keys are indicated by the flats (b) in the music.

MPW_M2_XX

The next two pairs use two black keys.

  A major and F© minor

MPW_M2_XX

 E flat major and C minor

MPW_M2_XX

Finding the tonic

Melodies often start and end on the tonic (name-note) of the key the piece is in. If you are improvising, or just ‘messing about’ creatively on the pentatonic scale, it pays to know which note the tonic is.

There are five notes in a pentatonic scale. Two of the seven normal scale tones in the octave are skipped, leaving gaps. That leaves the remaining five notes grouped into one group of two notes and one group of three notes. The same groups are used for two pentatonic scales, one major and one the relative minor.

Here’s how to find the tonic in those groups of three and two notes

  • The tonic of the major pentatonic scale is the lowest of every group of three notes. 
  • The tonic of the minor pentatonic scale is the highest of every group of two notes.

The tonics are marked with a T on the keyboards in the workbook keyboard diagrams. Check to see how they follow the description given.

Here are the tonics of the three pairs of pentatonic scales marked on less cluttered keyboards – major tonics above and minor tonics below. Doodle around and between tonics to improve your ‘ear’ for the home note of the two scales.

  C and A minor

major tonics

minor tonics

 G and E minor

major tonics

minor tonics

 F and D minor

major tonics

minor tonics

You have to pay close attention to the groups of black keys on your keyboard to see where the notes of these white-keys-only pentatonic scales are.

The groups of two and three notes are much less obvious in the pentatonic scales that use black keys. In time, you will be able to see the groups just as clearly.



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